微生物对塑料的影响有哪些? - 公司新闻

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微生物对塑料的影响有哪些?

发布日期:2019-06-25 作者:www.edkiller.com 点击:

  1. 微生物对塑料的生物腐蚀主要有三种生产方式:
  1. Biological corrosion of plastics by microorganisms is mainly produced in three ways:
  (1)微生物利用塑料成分作为营养源直接降解;
  (1) Microorganisms degrade directly by using plastic components as nutrient sources;
  (2)微生物代谢物(如酸、酶、色素)对塑料制品外观的间接降解或改变;
  (2) Indirect degradation or alteration of the appearance of plastic products by microbial metabolites such as acids, enzymes and pigments;
  (3)不经微生物降解而沉降在塑料制品表面造成的表面效应。
  (3) Surface effect caused by sedimentation on the surface of plastic products without microbial degradation.
  塑料制品一开始常常受到真菌的侵袭。真菌对塑料的降解作用最大,但细菌也以添加剂为食。一旦一种添加剂,如增塑剂,开始生物降解并变成更小的有机化合物,其他微生物就会进入并导致更大的生物腐蚀。生物腐蚀往往导致塑料制品的耐久性和使用寿命下降。
  Plastic products are often invaded by fungi at first. Fungi degrade plastic most, but bacteria also feed on additives. Once an additive, such as a plasticizer, begins to biodegrade and turn into smaller organic compounds, other microorganisms enter and cause greater biological corrosion. Biological corrosion often leads to the decrease of durability and service life of plastic products.
  微生物活动的主要影响包括:
  The main impacts of microbial activities include:
  (1)染色:
  (1) Staining:
  由细胞内色素(如青霉素,可将塑料染成粉红色)或细胞外染料(由微生物释放的有色代谢物引起的白色或黑色变色,如硫化亚铁FeS的产生)引起的。
  It is caused by intracellular pigments (such as penicillin, which can dye plastics pink) or extracellular dyes (white or black discoloration caused by colored metabolites released by microorganisms, such as the production of ferrous sulfide FeS).
  (2)电性能变化:
  (2) Changes in electrical properties:
  由于微生物的入侵,产品的电性能,特别是绝缘性能会发生变化。这种现象是由于微生物在塑料表面的沉降造成的,但在此过程中材料并没有变质。当由于微生物的存在而产生像胞外多糖这样的大分子时,相应的电性能降解就会加强。
  Due to the invasion of microorganisms, the electrical properties of products, especially the insulation properties, will change. This phenomenon is caused by the microorganism deposition on the plastic surface, but the material does not deteriorate in this process. When macromolecules such as exopolysaccharides are produced by microorganisms, the corresponding degradation of electrical properties will be enhanced.
  (3)机械性能降低:
  (3) The mechanical properties are reduced:
  由细菌和/或真菌引起的增塑剂代谢会使其脆化、收缩,最终导致拉伸强度和完整性的丧失。将增塑剂破坏成更小的分子也会促进微生物的生长,而微生物会代谢增塑剂。
济南塑料袋
  The metabolism of plasticizers caused by bacteria and/or fungi will make them brittle and shrink, and ultimately lead to the loss of tensile strength and integrity. Destruction of plasticizers into smaller molecules also promotes the growth of microorganisms, which metabolize plasticizers.
  (4)提高污水吸收率:
  (4) Improving the absorption rate of sewage:
  由于塑料表面受到微生物的侵袭,使得塑料表面的粗糙度增加,使得污垢更容易在表面积聚,从而引发恶性循环,加速塑料的变质和废弃,加剧了产品寿命的缩短。这种现象通常是由于增塑剂的降解引起表面的变化。
  Because the plastic surface is attacked by microorganisms, the roughness of the plastic surface is increased, which makes the dirt more easily accumulated on the surface, thus causing a vicious circle, accelerating the deterioration and abandonment of plastics, and increasing the shortening of product life. This phenomenon is usually due to the degradation of plasticizers resulting in surface changes.
  (5)溶剂和气体的渗透性:
  (5) Permeability of solvents and gases:
  塑料机械性能的降低还会导致溶剂和气体的渗透性增加,并减少甚至是无效的液体和气体的储存或隔离。
  Decreased mechanical properties of plastics can also lead to increased permeability of solvents and gases, and reduce the storage or isolation of even ineffective liquids and gases.
  (6)闻:
  (6) Wen:
  微生物的新陈代谢可以导致胺、氨或硫化氢的产生,这些都会产生难闻的气味。
  Microbial metabolism can lead to the production of amines, ammonia or hydrogen sulfide, which can produce unpleasant odors.


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